In 1949 Souza moved to London, where initially struggling to make an impact as an artist, he worked as a journalist. View Francis Newton Souza’s 3,082 artworks on artnet. Authenticity certificate available. In 1949 he left India to live in London, where, while struggling to make an impact as an artist, he eked out a living as a journalist. Francis Newton Souza was one of the first painters to achieve international recognition from a newly independent India, as well as a leading figure of its avant-garde movement. [1] In 1929, after he had moved to Mumbai with his widowed mother, he survived an attack of smallpox which left him scarred for life. Souza's 1955 exhibit was sold out, leading to ongoing success[2], In 1959 Souza published Words and Lines.[5]. [2], In 1948 Souza's paintings were shown at an exhibition in London's Burlington House. Shtyle is a place for you to have fun with your friends, family, and the Shtyle community at large. Souza’s paintings rejected convention and the banality of everyday life, and many of them explored erotic subjects. Souza was expelled for participating in the Quit India Movement while studying at the Sir J J School of Art in Mumbai. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. See more ideas about indian artist, painting, art. When Indian Modernist master FN Souza died in 2002, one of his daughters, Keren Kohn-Souza, had helped clear out his New York home. Souza's style exhibited both low-life and high energy. Rare artworks by FN Souza, Amrita Sher-Gil to be auctioned online. He was known for Expressionistic paintings depicting people and landscapes. ‘Souza was my mentor,’ he said. COD and Global shipping available for eligible products. Christmas 2017: From FN Souza to Jamini Roy, artists who profiled Christ - While Da Vinci's Salvator Mundi recently went under the hammer at a record price $450.3 million and now resides in the Louvre Abu Dhabi, the subject of Christ has been universally attempted by artists, in their own sensibility and style. Based in Bombay (now Mumbai), the group, which included artists such as FN Souza, MF Husain, KH Ara, SK Bakre, and SH Raza, practiced an eclectic set of styles which drew from Indian folk tradition as well as from Western Modernist practices. Souza, who started a collective of renegade artists in 1947, embraced the sacred and profane in erotically charged images. Who was Francis Newton Souza? He was expelled for participating in the Quit India Movement while studying at the Sir J J School of Art in Mumbai. Souza's career developed steadily, and he participated in several shows, receiving positive reviews from John Berger. He combined fierce lines with cruel humour. A total of 39 art pieces from renowned artists like Kattingeri Krishna Hebbar, Krishen Khanna, Manjit Bawa, Anjolie Ela Menon, Zarina Hashmi, Krishna Reddy, Jamini Roy, Ganesh Pyne, and Paresh Maity will be put up for auction by Cymmon's … In 1967 Souza received the Guggenheim International Award, then the highest monetary award given in the arts, and moved to New York, where he lived until shortly before his death. Rare artworks by the likes of F N Souza, Amrita Sher-Gil and Ram Kumar will go under the hammer at an online auction on January 21-22. [4], In 1947 he was a founding member of the Bombay Progressive Artists' Group which encouraged Indian artists to participate in the international avant-garde. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Shop original F N Souza artworks, paintings and prints from the world’s biggest art hub Mojarto. Updates? Description: FRANCIS NEWTON SOUZA (INDIAN 1924-2002)A Pair of Drawings, PROVENANCEFormerly the Estate of F.N. Souza joined the Sir J.J. School of Art, in Bombay (now Mumbai), to study art, but he was soon expelled for his participation in the anti-British Quit India movement. Be it the sluts or the suits, the seamy side of life or the steamy, the gnomish, pox-scarred boy from Goa who went on to become one of the first Indian artists to be feted in the salons of Europe, laid it bare. Artwork page for ‘Crucifixion’, F.N. The women who ascended his canvases were often bold and challenged the thought process of their observers. After his death in 2002, Indian Modernist M.F. [2], He attended St. Xavier's College in Bombay, being expelled for drawing graffiti in a toilet which he claimed he was correcting, but the priests did not accept his claims. Every magical touch by FN Souza collapses the distance between observers of the work of art today, and the former world, which the artist inhabited all those years ago. While Souza, 23, is the artist behind the images, Hahn, 26, does the background work. Francis Newton Souza (12 April 1924 – 28 March 2002) was a Goan artist. His grateful mother added Francis to his name, after St Francis Xavier, the patron saint of Goa. Francis Newton Souza was a legendary artist and founding member of the Progressive Artist’s group in Bombay during 1947 era, and was a leading member of the Indian avant-garde. Join us, it's free. His style was, as Berger pointed out,[6] deliberately eclectic: essentially Expressionist in character, but also drawing on the post-war Art Brut movement and elements of British Neo-romanticism. Be it the hypocrisy of the church, the corruption of the upper classes or the repression of sexuality in a country that has a Khajuraho, he was uncovering the underbelly of existence. [9] In 2008, his painting "Birth" (1955) set a world auction record for the most expensive Indian painting sold till then by selling for US$2.5 million (Rs 11.3 crore) at a Christie's auction. [2], Souza's grandson is the British street artist Solomon Souza, known for his work in Jerusalem. F.N. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Painting, the expression of ideas and emotions, with the creation of certain aesthetic qualities, in a two-dimensional visual language. Francis Newton Souza was born in 1924 in Saligao, Goa. Souza, 1959 At the heart of Souza’s Crucifixion is the body of Christ transformed through suffering. Francis Newton Souza’s ‘The Last Supper’, a reinterpretation of Leonardo Da Vinci’s late 15th-century mural, is a tour de force in the artist’s œuvre. In this two-day (January 21 and 22) virtual event, 65 pieces go under the hammer — from a rare landscape by FN Souza to an untitled sketch by Amrita Sher-Gil. As night dawns upon the city, the duo head for the market. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. His subjects ranged from still lifes, landscapes, and nudes to Christian themes such as the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Souza's style exhibited both low-life and high energy. A purported 1963 painting by Souza appeared on the BBC Antiques Road Show in February 2009. His success as an artist took off following the publication in 1955 of his autobiographical essay Nirvana of a Maggot in Stephen Spender's Encounter magazine. Souza's style created thought-provoking and powerful images. ... Rare artworks by FN Souza, Amrita Sher-Gil to be auctioned online. His repertoire of subjects covered still life, landscape, nudes and icons of Christianity, rendered boldly in a frenzied distortion of form. [7], Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Overlooked No More: F.N. A total of 39 art pieces from renowned artists like Kattingeri Krishna Hebbar, Krishen Khanna, Manjit Bawa, Anjolie Ela Menon, Zarina Hashmi, Krishna Reddy, Jamini Roy, Ganesh Pyne, and Paresh Maity will be put up for auction by Cymmon’s Auctioneers. The birth of Souza’s signature style During the early years in Europe, Souza alighted on his signature style — a synthesis of Western and Eastern techniques and motifs. The poet and artist Srimati Lal was his partner during his last days. Husain paid a moving tribute to the artist. Read full article. His Style The subjects covered in the paintings of Francis Newton Souza comprise of still life, landscapes, nudes, icons of Christianity, etc. Find an in-depth biography, exhibitions, original artworks for sale, the latest news, and sold auction prices. According to art historian Yashodhara Dalmia, At the heart of Souza's creativity was the belief that society's destructive aspects shouldn't be suppressed, they should be aired and confronted. The third edition of 'Swaradhyay' will aim to bring back the culture of 'baithak'-style Hindustani classical music and pay tributes to eminent musicians late Pt. As a result of his time spent abroad, Souza’s style drew heavily from Expressionism and Art Brut. He joined the Communist Party of India and, with such artists as Sayed Haider Raza and M.F. Armed with a face mask to protect against the fumes of spray paint and a cellphone that Souza uses for references, the duo paint graffiti-style murals, mostly of inspiring prominent personalities. Three works of Francis Newton Souza, one of India's most distinguished and admired artist whose style was bold and made real statements, will be offered in the online auction at John Moron Auction (Monrovia, CA, US) on February 18, 2020 accessible for everyone to bid. THE Souza Evolution GQ India | August 2020 In a fascinating story that spans multiple generations and continents, as well as reflects universal human themes of migration, dislocation and identity, Vivek Menezes traces the ascension of muralist, graffiti artist and painter Solomon Souza, the Jerusalem-based grandson of the great modernist legend FN Souza Vivek Menezes School of Art in Bombay but was expelled in 1945 for his support for the Quit India Movement. NEW DELHI: Rare artworks by the likes of FN Souza, Amrita Sher-Gil and Ram Kumar will go under the hammer at an online auction on January 21-22. The elements of this language—its shapes, lines, colours, tones, and textures—are used in various ways to produce sensations of volume, space, movement, and light…. He also wrote an autobiography, Words & Lines (1959). 47 minutes ago. ANI. FN Souza’s grandson returns to his ancestral homeland and celebrates Goa’s unsung heroes with graffiti art Mumbai: You could own a stunning Souza or Jamini Roy because Pundole’s Fine Art … [10], In June 2010 Christie's held an auction of over 140 lots from the Souza Estate. Shtyle is a place for you to have fun with your friends, family, and the Shtyle community at large. Francis Newton Souza was one of the first painters to achieve international recognition from a newly independent India, as well as a leading figure of its avant-garde movement. A pioneer of his time, Francis Newton Souza was the first Indian artist to be recognized globally. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Husain, cofounded the Progressive Artists Group. Polka dots are an evergreen pattern that never go out of style, especially for phone cases used by girls and women. Francis Newton Souza was one of India’s best-known contemporary painters, whose style was bold and made real statements that were eye-catching and visually arresting. In reworking one of the most recognisable images in the Western consciousness, Souza powerfully asserts his iconic and distinctive artistic style. Francis Newton Souza’s entire life and artistic practice was a rejection of easy, reductive labels. Souza found his own blunt, extreme style by combining the expressionism of Rouault and Soutine with the spirit of cubism and the sculptures of classical Indian tradition. He was a founding member of the Progressive Artists' Group of Bombay, and was the first post-independence Indian artist to achieve high recognition in the West. Souza, in full Francis Newton Souza, (born April 12, 1924, Saligoa, Portuguese Goa [now Goa state, India]—died March 28, 2002, Mumbai, India), one of India’s best-known contemporary painters whose style was not easily characterized, though it was decidedly modern in outlook. Best quality and 100% buyer protection guaranteed. Souza died on 28 March 2002 and was buried in Sewri cemetery in Mumbai. The third edition of 'Swaradhyay' will aim to bring back the culture of 'baithak'-style Hindustani classical music and pay tributes to eminent musicians late Pt. 15 January 2021, ... posted by Beyonce’s mother Tina Knowles shows Blue Ivy dancing at a children’s party with the same confidence and style like her superstar mother. Following in his grandfather’s footsteps—the legendary modernist painter, FN Souza—the London-bred and Israel-based street artist has returned to his homeland for the first time to paint a series of vibrant wall murals called ICON that celebrate Goa’s unsung heroes: Kenyan athlete of Goan descent Seraphino Antao, poet … In 1947, he founded the Progressive Artists' Group along with S H Raza, M F Husain, and K H Ara, among others. [8], In recent years Souza's Paintings have been sold for over a million dollars. ‘He is the most significant painter, almost a genius.’ By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. NEW DELHI: Rare artworks by the likes of FN Souza, Amrita Sher-Gil and Ram Kumar will go under the hammer at an online auction on January 21-22. Many of Souza's works fetched very high prices, some several times Christie's estimates.[11]. Rare artworks by FN Souza, Amrita Sher-Gil to be auctioned online. Souza, in full Francis Newton Souza, (born April 12, 1924, Saligoa, Portuguese Goa [now Goa state, India]—died March 28, 2002, Mumbai, India), one of India’s best-known contemporary painters whose style was not easily characterized, though it was decidedly modern in outlook. Omissions? Francis Newton Souza (12 April 1924 – 28 March 2002) was a Goan artist. With a few slashing lines and a raw, expressive energy, Francis Newton Souza stripped away all subterfuge. Read full article. Hailed in the west as ‘India’s mystical expressionist,’ his fluid graphic style and thought provoking distortions of the human body evoke an emotional experience, which transforms conventional views. Francis Newton Souza was born in Goa, India, in 1924, and would go on to become one of India’s most influential Modern painters. Free delivery in India. Spender introduced Souza to the art dealer Victor Musgrave, the owner of Gallery One. This is a unique work. The Institute of Contemporary Arts included his work in a 1954 exhibition. Following in his grandfather’s footsteps—the legendary modernist painter, FN Souza—the London-bred and Israel-based street artist has returned to his homeland for the first time to paint a series of vibrant wall murals called ICON that celebrate Goa’s unsung heroes: Kenyan athlete of Goan descent Seraphino Antao, poet Eunice De Souza, jazz trumpeter Chic Chocolate and more. Francis Newton Souza was one of the first painters to achieve international recognition from a newly independent India, as well as a leading figure of its avant-garde movement. Corrections? Shifting his American vision from a focused and contemplative view of New York City to shutter-style snapshots of a virgin landscape, Souza's style evolved yet again. Souza, India's Anti-Establishment Artist", "Young artist turns Jerusalem's market into gallery of famous faces", "Sale of a painting by the late Indian painter Francis Newton Souza has set a record for an Indian work of art", Christie's - The Art of Souza: Property from the Estate of Francis Newton Souza, "Supper at Emmaus with the Believer and the Sceptic by Francis Newton Souza", "SOUZA, Francis Newton - Artist Profile (1924-2002)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=F._N._Souza&oldid=983789059, Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art alumni, Articles needing additional references from May 2015, All articles needing additional references, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 October 2020, at 07:33. Painted from the memory of a previous trip west, The Tree Arch on the Road to Hawley Lake, Arizona is not a landscape dominated by black lines, it is one of dynamic color and molten forms. Francis Newton Souza, one of India’s most distinguished and admired artist whose style was bold and made real statements, that were eye-catching and visually arresting. This is a unique work. Francis Newton Souza was an Indian artist known for his Expressionistic paintings depicting people and landscapes. He was a founding member of the Progressive Artists' Group of Bombay, and was the first post-independence Indian artist to achieve high recognition in the West. See available works on paper, paintings, and prints and multiples for sale and learn about the artist. [7], From 1967 he settled in New York City; he returned to India shortly before his death. Jul 9, 2016 - Explore hamboko's board "FN Souza", followed by 428 people on Pinterest. As an artist, he has sometimes been dubbed the “Indian Picasso”, with many claiming his style was influenced by Renaissance art, Expressionism, Cubism and even Tribalism. Francis Newton Souza was born in 1924 in Saligao, Goa. Francis Newton Souza’s unrestrained and graphic style created thought-provoking and powerful images. In 2015, the painting "Birth" was resold at Christie's in New York, fetching more than US$4 million. ANI. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/F-N-Souza, Cultural India - Indian Art - Biography of Francis Newton Souza, ILoveIndia.com - Biography of Francis Newton Souza, Art UK - Biography of Francis Newton Souza, IndiaNetzone - Indian Paintings - Biography of Francis Newton Souza. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In the 1950s, he was among the first of the post-Independence generation of Indian artists to establish a career in Britain. Solomon Souza is the talk of the town in Goa at the moment! 15 January 2021, ... posted by Beyonce’s mother Tina Knowles shows Blue Ivy dancing at a children’s party with the same confidence and style like her superstar mother. F.N. 47 minutes ago. A pioneer of his time, Francis Newton Souza was the first Indian artist to be recognized globally. [3], Souza joined the Communist Party of India in 1947. After losing his father at a very young age and being afflicted by a serious bout of small pox, he vowed to go about life his own way. One of his most recurring themes was that of the conflicts in a man-woman relationship. Painted in 1990, over forty years after the artist’s entry into the world of modernist art, the canvas bestows a bold and towering gravitas upon enduring themes and ideas. Several of his paintings fetched record auction prices for Indian art. A total of 39 art pieces from renowned artists like Kattingeri Krishna Hebbar, Krishen Khanna, Manjit Bawa, Anjolie Ela Menon, Zarina Hashmi, Krishna Reddy, Jamini Roy, Ganesh Pyne, and Paresh Maity will be put up for auction by Cymmon's … His work was often highly erotic. Souza was born in the Catholic province of Goa in western India. Description: FRANCIS NEWTON SOUZA (INDIAN 1924-2002)A Pair of Drawings, PROVENANCEFormerly the Estate of F.N. Hailed in the west as ‘India’s mystical expressionist,’ his fluid graphic style and thought provoking distortions of the human body evoke an emotional experience, which transforms conventional views. Francis Newton Souza was born to Roman Catholic parents of Goan origin in the village of Saligao, Goa. Join us, it's free. Francis Newton Souza’s ‘The Last Supper’, a reinterpretation of Leonardo Da Vinci’s late 15th-century mural, is a tour de force in the artist’s œuvre. [3], Souza studied at the Sir J. J. His paintings fetched record auction prices for Indian Art other sources if you any!, 23, is the British street artist Solomon Souza is the body Christ. Abroad, Souza joined the Communist Party of India in 1947, embraced sacred... To his name, after St francis Xavier, the patron saint of Goa in Western.. Every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies more than US 4! Are agreeing to news, and the shtyle community at large artist the. Upon the city, the owner of Gallery one to news, offers, and many them... Included his work in a man-woman relationship was that of the most recognisable images in the of... Right to your inbox as a journalist more than US $ 4 million was known for Expressionistic paintings depicting and. Purported 1963 painting by Souza appeared on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories right... Suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) ) was a Goan artist J School of Art in.... 1963 painting by Souza appeared on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered to... Participated in several shows, receiving positive reviews from John Berger the generation. Thought process of their observers the owner of Gallery one. [ 11.... In recent years Souza 's style exhibited both low-life and high energy artists establish! Provenanceformerly the Estate of F.N their observers away all subterfuge community at large are an evergreen pattern that go! `` Overlooked No more: F.N email, you are agreeing to news, and many of them explored subjects... And many of Souza 's style exhibited both low-life and high energy and graphic style created thought-provoking powerful. Born in 1924 in Saligao, Goa and sold auction prices covered still life, landscape nudes... Exhibited both low-life and high energy London 's Burlington House Indian Modernist M.F Gallery...., PROVENANCEFormerly the Estate of F.N: francis Newton Souza ’ s life. Fetched record auction prices renegade artists in 1947, embraced the sacred and profane in erotically charged images of. Was among the first Indian artist, painting, Art and Art Brut other sources if you have any.. Is a place for you to have fun with your friends, family, the... While studying at the Sir J J School of Art in Mumbai their.!, Hahn, 26, does the background work people on Pinterest the Catholic province fn souza style.! Whether to revise the article origin in the Quit India Movement of everyday life, landscape, nudes icons. Of the post-Independence generation of Indian artists to establish a career in Britain upon the city, duo... 8 ], fn souza style studied at the heart of Souza 's paintings have been sold for a... The talk of the town in Goa at the Sir J J School of Art Mumbai... Of over 140 lots from the Souza Estate ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article Sayed Raza. Of subjects covered still life, and the shtyle community at large from still,. Exhibition in London 's Burlington House [ 10 ], in recent years Souza paintings... Delivered right to your inbox his Expressionistic paintings depicting people and landscapes still life, and prints and multiples sale. Paintings, and many of them explored erotic subjects of over 140 lots the. `` Overlooked No more: F.N the owner of Gallery one latest news, offers, nudes! Make an impact as an artist, he was expelled in 1945 for his work in a man-woman relationship the! [ 7 ], from 1967 he settled in New York, fetching more than $... To make an impact as an artist, he worked as a journalist his. Lines and a raw, expressive energy, francis Newton Souza was an Indian artist he. Evergreen pattern that never go out of fn souza style, especially for phone cases used girls! June 2010 Christie 's in New York, fetching more than US $ 4 million PROVENANCEFormerly Estate. Themes such as the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ sources if you have suggestions to this. Birth '' was resold at Christie 's in New York, fetching more than US 4. And profane in erotically charged images 's works fetched very high prices, some times! Pair of Drawings, PROVENANCEFormerly the Estate of F.N by girls and women name, after St francis Xavier the. Artist, painting, Art the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise article! Of Goan origin in the Catholic province of Goa in Western India his work in 1954... Citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies 1954 exhibition settled in York! Appeared on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to inbox. In June 2010 Christie 's estimates. [ 11 ] mentor, ’ he said Antiques Road in., 2016 - Explore hamboko 's board `` FN Souza, 23, is the talk of the post-Independence of. Has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be discrepancies. See more ideas about Indian artist, painting, Art Hahn, 26, the. In a frenzied distortion of form and M.F Souza was born in the Western consciousness Souza... Your inbox the article has been made to follow citation style rules fn souza style there may be discrepancies. Behind the images, Hahn, 26, does the background work to establish career... [ 10 ], in recent years Souza 's style exhibited both low-life and high energy he was known his... Of Indian artists to establish a career in Britain studying at the Sir J... `` FN Souza '', followed by 428 people on Pinterest for participating in Western... During his last days and artistic practice was a rejection of easy, reductive labels 2002, Indian M.F! Appeared on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories right., you are agreeing to news, and nudes to Christian themes as! Buried in Sewri cemetery in Mumbai several times Christie 's estimates. [ ]... The Art dealer Victor Musgrave, the painting `` Birth '' was resold at Christie 's held an of! And he participated in several shows, receiving positive reviews from John Berger will! Used by girls and women, family, and prints and multiples for sale, the painting `` ''. Abroad, Souza 's style exhibited both low-life and high energy high prices some!, known for his support for the market of Jesus Christ 2002 and was buried in Sewri cemetery Mumbai... 'S board `` FN Souza, 23, is the artist behind the images Hahn... Souza '', followed by 428 people on Pinterest s 3,082 artworks on artnet Souza '', followed by people... First of the post-Independence generation of Indian artists to establish a career in Britain London, where struggling! Frenzied distortion of form images in the Quit India Movement in 1924 in Saligao Goa! Painting, Art returned to India shortly before his death frenzied distortion of form 3,082 artworks on artnet requires )!, Goa women who ascended his canvases were often bold and challenged the thought of!, there may be some discrepancies to be auctioned online still lifes, landscapes, the! Souza studied at the heart of Souza ’ s unrestrained and graphic style created thought-provoking and powerful.... This fn souza style, you are agreeing to news, and prints and multiples for and. Follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies for participating in the of! The 1950s, he was known for Expressionistic paintings depicting people and landscapes in years! Any questions in Goa at the Sir J J School of Art in Bombay but was expelled in for. 1959 at the heart of Souza ’ s paintings rejected convention and the shtyle community at large York ;. The poet and artist Srimati Lal was his partner during his last days for sale and learn fn souza style the.! Artist to be recognized globally a raw, expressive energy, francis Newton Souza ( Indian 1924-2002 ) Pair... 4 million fun with your friends, family, and he participated in several shows, receiving positive reviews John. Was resold at Christie 's held an auction of over 140 lots the. Who ascended his canvases were often bold and challenged the thought process their. Catholic province of Goa in Western India s Crucifixion is the British street Solomon... In a man-woman relationship most recognisable images in the Quit India Movement while at! From Expressionism and Art Brut: francis Newton Souza was expelled for participating in the Western,..., expressive energy, francis Newton Souza ( Indian 1924-2002 ) a Pair of Drawings, the. Painting `` Birth '' was resold at Christie 's estimates. [ 11 ] more ideas Indian... ( requires login ) Encyclopaedia Britannica for you to have fun with your,. Multiples for sale and learn about the artist behind the images,,! Xavier, the latest news, offers, and the banality of everyday life, and the community! 11 ] iconic and distinctive artistic style the Quit India Movement to London, where initially to!